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Festivals of India: Festivals of Pandharpur

by Smt. Anjali Ambekar

Pandharpur Yatra, Glories of Lord Vithal/Vithoba.
The “Vi” in Lord Vithoba’s name denotes knowledge and “Thoba” denotes shape. He is the shape of knowledge or the idol of knowledge. Another interpretation is that the word “Vitthala” is said to be derived from the Marathi word “Vit”, meaning brick.. “Ba” is used to denote “father” in Marathi.
Lord Vithal/ Vitthal/ Vithoba is none other than Lord Vishnu, Lord Narayana or Lord Krishna. It is believed that Lord Krishna had incarnated at the end of Dwarpa Yuga on the eighth day of the dark fortnight in the holy month of Shravan (As per the Hindu calendar). He is lovingly called names like Pandrinath, Panduranga, Pandhairiraya, Vithai, Vithoba, Vithu-mauli, Vitthalgururao by his devotees. But the well-known and commonly used names are Pandurang / Panduranga and Shri Vitthal / Vithal. The word Vitthala is said to be derived from the Kannada (a language spoken in the southern parts of India) word for Lord Vishnu. The worship of Lord Vitthala has been derived mainly from the Puranas. His worship has been made well-known by the teachings, poems, kirtans, and pads of great Vaishnava saints of Maharashtra from the 13th through the 17th centuries. They were saints like Sant Namdeo /Namdev, Sant Jnaneshwar, Sant Eknath and Sant Tukaram. Pundalik, a saint was closely associated with this shrine, and hence this shrine is also known as Pundarika Pura.
The most important dates for Pandharpur pilgrimage is on Aashadi Ekadashi (June- July) and Kartiki / Kartik Ekadashi (November). During these yatras or pilgrimage people travel from miles together, barefooted, fasting and chanting His holy name until they get a glimpse of the Lord.
Lord Vithal’s morning bathing ritual takes place at dawn around 4:00-4:30 am. It is called Kakkad Aarti. This is the first glimpse of the Lord Vithal. It begins with bathing the Lord with water. Then he is gently wiped with a soft cloth. A Tilak is put on his forehead. Next fragrant oil is anointed. The fragrance is so divine that it spreads all across the town of Pandharpur. This is followed by another paste which contains various herbs. In the background, the priests keep chanting Vedic mantras which further purify the surroundings.
Warm water is gently poured to wash this mixture off the Lord’s body. Water symbolically represents that all the rivers like Ganga, Jamuna, Saraswati, Godavari, Krishna, Chandrabhaga and their tributaries are all paying their respects. The next ritual is giving the Lord a bath with Pancha Amrut. Panch meaning five and Amrut denote divine nectar. These five ingredients include milk, curd or yogurt, ghee or clarified butter, honey and sugar. The sugar is in the powdered form. This Pancha Amrut Snana or bath begins with a conch filled with cow’s milk. After each item, fragrant water and flower is placed on the Lord’s head. Next is yogurt made of cow’s milk is poured. The Lord is then offered fresh, white cream, followed by ghee or clarified butter. Honey is next. Sugar as white as snow is gently rubbed on this divine form. Milk is continuously poured until all the elements of Pancha Amrut washes away.
The next ritual is Shringar – the way Lord Vithal is dressed. He wears garments of the finest silk and sparkling jewels. His forehead is adorned with Tilak made of sandalwood paste and Kasturi (Fragrance obtained from the rare breed of deer called Kasturi). This is followed by garlands of fresh, fragrant flowers. After the completion of Shringar, the Lord is then shown a mirror which is framed in silver.
A short Aarti is performed and the curtain is closed. Behind the closed drapes, the Lord is offered Naivedyam or food. The curtains are raised again and the Lord is offered fruits and rice. Then the main Aarti is performed. This brings joy to all the devotees who see their Lord in full divine glory.
Pandharpur is a holy place of Shri.Vitthal and Shri.Rukmini. It is also known as the Southern Kashi of India and Kuldaivat of Maharashtra State. It is located at a distance of 72 kms by road. from Solapur District headquarters. The Pandharpur Railway Station falls on the Miraj-Kurduwadi-Latur railway track.
Shri. Lord Vitthal is the Supreme God of the Universe with incarnation of Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu. Lord Vitthal is also known by the names Shri.Panduranga and Vithoba, Great Saints like Shri. Sant Dnyaneshwar, Shri. Sant Tukaram, Shri Sant Namdev, Shri. Sant Purandardas and others sung Abhangas in praise of Lord Vitthala.
'Padsparsha Darshan' is the unique feature of Vithoba Temple. Irrespective of the caste and creed every devotee can enter the Sanctum Sanctorium and can place his/her head on the feet of Lord Vitthala. This tradition is followed nowhere in India. The Bhagawat Dharma is being followed with full spirit in Pandharpur.
The ancient temple of Shri.Vitthal was renovated in 1195 A.D. There are many other temples of Indian Dieties and Mathas (Dharmshalas) of many Saints. The Chandrabhaga (Bhima) river flows through the City. Large number of devotees from all over Maharashtra and surrounding States gather at Pandharpur mainly to celebrate the Aashadhi and Kartiki Ekadashis every year in addition to the regular rush of devotees everyday. The Palaquins (Palakhi) of various Saints originating from various locations gather at Wakhari, five kms. from Pandharpur for the Waari festival.
The various daily rituals like Kakda Aarati, Mahapooja, Mahanaivedhya, Poshakh, Dhooparati, Padyapooja, Shejarti etc are performed in the main temple of Lord Vitthal.
The following are the temples inside the main temple as one enters from Namdev Payari and come out of Pachhim Dwar of the temple.

1. Namdev Payari - In memory of Shri.Sant Namdev
2. Ganesh Mandir
3. Datta Mandir
4. Garud Mandir
5. Maruti Mandir
6. Chowrangee Devi Mandir
7. Garud Khamb
8. Narsimha Mandir
9. Ek-mukh Dattatraya Mandir
10. Rameshwar Lingam Mandir
11. Kala Bahirav Mandir
12. Laxmi-Narayan Mandir
13. Kashi-Vishwanath Mandir
14. Satya-Bhama Mandir
15. Radhika Mandir
16. Siddhi-Vinayak Mandir
17. Mahalakshmi Mandir
18. Venkateshwar Mandir
19. Kanhopatra Mandir
20. Ambabai Mandir
21. Shani-Dev Mandir
22. Nagnath Mandir
23. Guptaling Mandir
24. Khandoba Mandir

Major Festivals of Pandhrapur:
In Pandharpur, Wednesday is regarded as the auspicious day in the week and Ekadashi, the auspicious day in the month. The Aashadi, Kartiki, Magh and Chaitra Ekadashis are the four major festivals of the temple. Out of these four, the first two festivals attract a large crowd about 8 to 10 lakhs. Apart from these, festivals like Gudipadwa, Ramanavami, Dasara and Deepawali are also celebrated.
There are three major events Ashadhi Ekadashi i.e immediately after onset of Monsoon season. All the farmers complete their pre mansoon farming works. All the Warkaris (pilgrims) visit Pandharpur Pilgrim Centre from allover India including Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, and Andhra Pradesh. States. It is a very big long march of Warkaris (Pilgrims) from the various other pilgrim centre from Maharashtra as below. About 2 lakh Warkaris marching from pilgrim Alandi of Sant Dnyaneshwara and from Dehu of Sant Tukaram’s pilgrim centers and many other warakaris join this march on their way to this long route of Alandi-Dehu to Pandharpur. In all about 7 – 8 lakh devotees visit Pandharpur for Aashadi Ekadashi. Katiki Ekadashi comes immediately after the monsoon season is over and many warakaris visit Pandharpur from Dehu, Alandi, Newasa etc. and other parts of Maharashtra. About 3 – 4 lakhs devotees visit Pandharpur. Maghi Ekadashi comes in the initial period of summer season. About 2 lakh devotees visit Pandharpur. Chaitri Ekadashi comes generally in the month of April. About 1 lakh devotees visit for this ekadashi.
According to the legend, there was once a devoted son called Pundalik. He looked after the needs of his father Janudev and his mother Satyavati. But things changed when Pundalik got married. He started ill treating them. Tired of his tyranny, the parents decided to head for Kashi / Varanasi. It is said that those who die in Kashi attain salvation and liberation from the cycle of birth and death. This is still believed today and many people travel there when they feel their end is near.
Hearing his parents plans, Pundalik and his wife decided to join them. His treachery continued so much that he made his old parents walk throughout the journey while he and his young wife rode on a horse. On the way, they came across the hermitage of the venerable sage, Kukkutswami. Tired of the long journey, the group decided to spend some days there.
That night, Pundalik lay awake and witnessed something remarkable. Just before dawn, he saw a group of beautiful, young women dressed in dirty clothes, enter the Sage’s hermitage. They did chores like cleaning the floor, fetching water and washing the Sage’s clothes. After that, they went to the prayer room. When they came out, their clothes were spotlessly clean and they disappeared. Pundalik wasn’t alarmed seeing this but rather he felt at peace. He kept thinking about the incident the following day. He wanted to be sure that he was not dreaming but had truly witnessed such a glorious incident. So he remained awake again. But this time, he got closer and decided to speak to the women.
“Who are you all?”
“We are Ganga, Yamuna and all the holy rivers of India. People take a dip and bathe in us to wipe away their sins. The impurity of their mind, body and souls make us dirty. That’s why you see our clothes in such filthy condition.” Pundalik was amazed with their answer.
“But you are the biggest sinner of all because of the way you treat your parents.”
This was a rude awakening for Pundalik. He realized his mistake and changed his ways. He served his parents well and looked after all their needs and comforts. It is said that devotion in any form reaches God. Seeing Pundalik’s sincere devotion towards his parents, Lord Vishnu was extremely pleased. He left his abode – Vaikauntha Lok to bless Pundalik. Lord Vishnu reached Pundalik’s house and knocked on his door but he was serving food to his parents. Pundalik saw the Lord at his door but his devotion to his parents was so intense that he wanted to finish his duties first and then attend to his guest. It didn’t matter to him whether the guest was a mere mortal or God.
Pundalik gave the Lord a brick to stand on and asked Him to wait until his duty was completed. The ever-loving Lord was so pleased with his devotee that He waited for him. When Pundalik came out, he asked God’s forgiveness for neglecting Him, but the Lord instead asked him to request a boon and it would be fulfilled.What more could a devotee ask when his Lord was standing right in front of him? Pundalik asked that He should remain on earth and bless all His devotees. His wish was granted and the Lord remained behind and is known as Vithoba or the Lord who stands on a brick.This form of the Lord is Swayambhu which means that His idol has not been carved or etched but it came into existence on its own. He is accompanied by His consort Rakhumai or Rukmini.